Multiple Cloud Provider Thoughts

While Terraspace can support multiple Cloud Providers within one single project, the code can get complex. So it is generally not recommended to mixed multiple Cloud Provider resources in a single Terraspace project, particularly if you’re using the TFC VCS-Workflow and multiple regions. First, we’ll provide some context and then discuss some of the reasons.

Where Terraspace Builds

When Terraspace builds a project, it will build it in the terraspace-cache folder. It looks something like this:

$ terraspace build demo
Building .terraspace-cache/us-west-2/dev/stacks/demo

Notice that the region is included in the path.

Terraform Cloud

One of the reason region is included in the path is for Terraform Cloud. With TFC, the Workspace “Terraform Working Directory” setting needs to be unique for the VCS-Driven Workflow. The code needs to be checked into version control under a unique path.

Essentially, it boils down to how TFC works. We must make sure that the “Terraform Working Directory” is designed for a different workspace. If we are not using TFC VCS-Driven workflow, these limits do not apply. For example, the TFC CLI-Driven workflow works just fine.

Other Backend Types

Let’s say you’re not using TFC and are using another backend like s3 instead. With other Backend types, it’s not a VCS-Driven workflow. So Terraspace will build the folder and be able to apply just fine also.

Multiple Cloud Providers Build Path

Now let’s talk about Terraspace with multiple Cloud Providers in one project. Say, a single Terraspace project provisions both AWS and Google resources. Let’s say the vm stack provisions a Google VM and the instance stack provisions an AWS Instance. AWS and Google regions are unique. So their build paths would look something like this:


So for the TFC VCS-Workflow, we’re ok in terms of unique build paths. For other workflows like Terraform OSS and the TFC CLI-workflow it also works just fine.

Multiple Cloud Providers Backends

The uses an expansion helper that auto-detects the provider plugin installed. When 2 providers are installed, the auto-detection returns only one provider’s backend using this precedence: s3, azurerm, gcs.

Just using one s3 backend for both Cloud Provider resources is probably the most straightforward approach. Though, it does feel a little dirty to mix up the state of multiple clouds.

If you wanted to use different backends from different cloud providers in a single Terraspace project, there’s some extra setup. The expansion method needs to be passed a backend option. Additionally, we’ll need to use some conditional logic to set the different backends on a per stack basis. Here’s an example:


<% if ENV["GCS_BACKEND"] %>
terraform {
  backend "gcs" {
    bucket = "<%= expansion('terraform-state-:PROJECT-:REGION-:ENV', backend: "gcs") %>"
    prefix = "<%= expansion(':REGION/:ENV/:BUILD_DIR', backend: "gcs") %>" # variable notation expanded by terraspace IE: us-central1/dev/modules/vm
<% else %>
terraform {
  backend "s3" {
    bucket         = "<%= expansion('terraform-state-:ACCOUNT-:REGION-:ENV', backend: "s3") %>"
    key            = "<%= expansion(':REGION/:ENV/:BUILD_DIR/terraform.tfstate', backend: "s3") %>" # variable notation expanded by terraspace IE: us-west-2/dev/modules/vm/terraform.tfstate
    region         = "<%= expansion(':REGION', backend: "s3") %>"
    encrypt        = true
    dynamodb_table = "terraform_locks"
<% end %>
terraspace up demo # aws
GCS_BACKEND=1 terraspace up demo2 # google

You can probably use a Config Hook to set the GCS_BACKEND env variable based on module name, so you don’t have to remember it. It starts to get pretty complex though.


While it is possible to use a single Terraspace project to provision resources from multiple cloud providers, it is cleaner to have multiple terraspace projects. For example, a terrasapce project for AWS and one for Google. Terraform resource interfaces are not cloud-agnostic anyway. Terraform supports multiple cloud providers, but the Cloud provider interfaces are different. So the current recommendation is to use separate Terraspace projects.